The Cropwalker - Volume 2 Issue 31
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Winter Wheat – Continues to grind on. Some areas have finished. Growers are reporting strong straw yields, but some are disappointed with the amount of grain relative to straw. In speaking with one CCA, this year was not a year to cut back on N rates on wheat, with slow soil N mineralization. If you have a preferred, or are considering a new variety for this fall, suggest checking in on availability. See note below on farm saved seed. Corn – growers on the fence on whether to spray a fungicide at tasseling/silking. See note below based upon yield potential. This is general data provided by BASF. Also consider relative humidity within the corn canopy at silking for DON. Data presented at a February 2019 meeting suggests this is one of the primary factors for causing DON infection. OMAFRA’s Field Crop Entomologist, Tracey Baute, has reported receiving a few calls on corn rootworm adults feeding. If you have silk clipping, spraying is only warranted if pollination is less than 50% complete. In a few cases growers thought they had corn root worm protection via genetics but did not. See article below on corn traits. Soybeans – spider mites have been reported on the gravel/sandy knolls in the Ayr area. Keep checking for this pest. Aphids continue to be present in many fields at very low levels. White mould reported in early planted soybeans. See article below.
Will start to grow now. Typically, soybeans start to flower early in July when it is hot and dry. The fact that many fields flowered later changes things. Fields that have good moisture are apt to develop white mould. Dew at night gives enough moisture to allow this disease to grow. Nothing you can do now. Do not waste money on more sprays to control mould. Applying fungicides to soybeans now could help control other diseases such as Phomopsis, as mentioned last week. The probability of getting a return by spraying for mould control once you see mould is lower than the probability of winning a lottery. And no reason to go check to see how bad it is. Just walk away from it. The mould will now continue to grow from plant to plant and through individual plants. Mould starts on flower petals, drops into the canopy then spreads by physical contact from plant to plant.
Tar spot on corn showing up in Wisconsin and Michigan
Tar spot is a new disease to corn. No reports of it in Ontario. Last year tar spot caused significant yield loss in some corn fields in Michigan and other US states. Most registered corn fungicides have activity on tar spot. So, if you sprayed for fusarium control, you probably have early control of tar spot and many other leaf diseases. Initial tar spot lesions are easy to confuse with insect frass, however frass will dissolve and wipe off the leaf with some water. Tar spot lesions will be embedded in the corn leaf tissue and have a slight raised feel to them. If you look closely, there will also be a small area or dead (necrotic) or yellow (chlorotic) leaf tissue close to the lesion. (notes from Martin Chilvers, Michigan State University Extension)
Can I save my winter wheat seed?
Unsure if you can save the winter wheat seed you purchased last fall, or, can help a neighbor out that is looking for some? Check out this link for additional information. This website lists your responsibilities as a producer/seed cleaner/retailer when it comes to purchasing seed under the plant breeder’s act, or newer varieties with PBR 91.
Certified Seed - Fast Facts
Plant Breeder Rights Factsheet
How much of the total plant does harvesting straw remove?
As a rule of thumb, half the wheat plant is above ground, half is below ground. Of that portion that is above ground, 50% is harvested for grain. That leaves 50% of the above ground portion for straw. But usually only half of this is harvested for bedding/feed (depending on cutting height, moisture, variety, etc). Out of the total plant, 25% is removed as grain, and 12.5% is removed as straw, leaving 62.5% of the wheat crop in the field (chaff, stems and roots, etc).
Not your father’s Hard Red Wheat market!
In the past, growers lamented that they are unable to obtain protein on their hard reds. Management practices on how to obtain protein content are now readily available. Additionally, the hurdles for protein on hard reds have changed. Discounts now begin at 9.9% protein or under. With new genetics and management techniques, as well as what is reported as a strong spread between the SRW and HRW wheat classes, perhaps it is time to consider HRW again. This demand is for domestic use, those in the export business will likely continue to focus on SRW.
Here is the posted GFO - Hard Red Wheat, Pool B protein bids (Protein bids may vary by buyer, call prior to contracting);
10 to 10.9% protein - $0/MT
11 to 11.9% - $8/MT
12% and over - $15/MT
Corn Fungicide Yield Potential as % of Yield by Growth Stage
Perhaps this is overly simplistic, given it does not account for hybrid or disease pressure, but it does provide an expected response based on plant stage timing.
Bias vs. Economic Incentive
You have decided to hire a private crop consultant. You feel they do not have a bias when it comes to your crop management decisions. But wait, they do have bias. Bias is formed based upon experience, feedback, and social influences. For example; If the farm you grew up on had John Deere equipment, you may have a bias towards wanting to use or promote John Deere equipment. But now you work as a sales rep. for the local Case IH dealership. You have an economic incentive for your clients to purchase and use Case IH branded equipment.
Growers hire a private crop consultant because they have economic incentive in making sound agronomic decisions. The consultant wants you to hire them again for the following crop season, and/or, to provide positive referrals. Whether you work in industry, or as a grower, ask yourself, does this person have this opinion because of a bias, or is there an economic incentive for them to have this view?
Winter Wheat Variety Summary
A summary of current market offerings for fall 2019. Focus is on new genetics. Suppliers in alphabetical order.
Soft White Winter
Nothing new for the 2020 season in the soft white category. Most common varieties by supplier.
Brevant (formerly Dow Seeds)
Ava (awnless) - Excellent yielding, sprout resistant relative to other SWW varieties. Sound agronomics that responds to slightly higher seeding rates.
25W38 (awned) – Excellent lodging score with strong disease package. Short variety.
AC Mountain - High yields, good quality and excellent tolerance to barley yellow dwarf virus.
Soft Red Winter
Brevant (formerly Dow Seeds)
B654SRW (awnless) – best adapted to areas 1 and 2, medium tall plant, excellent winter survival and stripe rust resistance. Early maturity and stable yields across multiple years. Responds to intensive management. Try this variety if you have been happy with Branson in the past.
B743SRW (awnless) – adapted to all areas, medium tall plant, Moderate resistance for fusarium. Mid to late maturity. Plan on a split app N or growth regulator if pushing N rates. Has stronger fusarium tolerance and overall leaf disease ratings than B654SRW/Branson.
DS572SRW (awned) – a mid to full maturity wheat, adapted to zones 1 to 3. if you have grown Emmit in the past, this is its replacement. Excellent winter survival, seed and test weight. Largest seed out of all varieties in the Brevant lineup.
Branson (awnless) – adapted to all areas, short to medium tall plant. Has been a standard on many farms that have grown SRW in the past.
Blaze (awned) – Excellent yields with great winter survival. FHB1 gene (prevents secondary infection) for excellent fusarium tolerance. Strong stripe rust. Small seeded for seed cost savings. Medium plant height with great standability and lots of straw. For 2019 WW harvest C&M reports they have been seeing very strong yields. If you are an organic grower, look for this one (due to strong fusarium tolerance).
Hilliard (awned) – Currently pending registration. For its inaugural season, C&M is recommending this racehorse on high fertility and intensive management farms. It has very fast emergence with an excellent disease package. Short plant height with great standability. Lots of straw, expected to respond to intensive management.
Cruze (awned) – Has done traditionally done very well in area 1. In 2019, starting to see it prove itself in areas 2 and 3. Responds very well to management. If pushing N rates, consider split N application or a growth regulator to keep it straight.
CM614 (awnless) – Continues to be a veteran performer on marginal soils. Strong tillering capacity, with thick bright straw, and excellent winter survival. Best pick for those tough clay soils. Watch population with early planting, and/or strong fertility, as proper management is required to prevent lodging.
Drew (awned) – Limited supply available, will likely be final year. Seeing it win in plots in 2019 but have better genetics on the way for leaf disease tolerance, especially Stripe Rust.
25R74 (awned) – 25R40 performance with stronger fusarium tolerance; shorter; more likely to respond to late season management for growers wanting to manage with multiple passes. Use typical seeding rates based upon calendar date and ground conditions.
25R61 (awned) – 25R40 performance with stronger fusarium tolerance; taller. Less responsive to intensive management than 25R74. Use typical seeding rates based upon calendar date and ground conditions.
Continue to supply; 25R46 (awned), 25R40 (awned), 25R34 (awned).
New genetics expected for fall 2020, in the meantime SeCan members have the following;
Emperor (awnless) - Average heading date and good milling quality. Medium to tall plant height with good standability and straw yields. Solid choice for producers who are looking for more straw than is produced by shorter statured winter wheat varieties on the market.
Secord (awned) - Strong yield potential. Has a medium plant height, good stripe rust tolerance, acceptable winter survival, and adaptability to all winter wheat production areas of Ontario.
Snobelen Farms/Bramhill Seeds
Marker (awnless) – Consistently top yield performer. Responds very well to intensive management. Highest rating for FHB resistance. Earlier heading. Small seed for seed cost savings.
Measure (awned) – Excellent test weight, relatively new with best DON rating score in provincial trials. Earlier heading date, with strong test weight and medium plant height. Strong leaf disease package.
Hard Red Winter
Adrianus (awned) – It’s Priesley with awns and stronger protein. Clean, short, and stands well. If you have grown Priesley and are looking for the next generation of Hard Red, consider Adrianus.
Pro 81 (awned) – If you have grown Gallus in the past, consider Pro 81. It has a strong leaf disease package, and it looks like Gallus, but yields more!
Priesley (awnless) – Combines well, a top performer in the HRW line up, will run with top SRW performers. Stands very well, have yet to see it go flat, even with 200 lbs N/ac. Initial data suggests it will not respond to growth regulators. Need to intensively manage N & S for protein. Can deliver to any elevator, provided you use a seed declaration form. Unable to save seed, due to special consideration registration.
Gallus (awned) – Consistent yielder, year in/year out. Candidate for growth regulator. In the C&M lineup if you want to grow a hard red that has proven yield and protein content, this is it.
Lexington (awned) – Medium height. Similar plant to Gallus, 2018 area III trials rate it better for winter survival and straw yields. Can have slightly better protein than Gallus. Impressive plant with large, plump kernels. Possibly a good fit if you have grown Princeton or Harvard in the past.
Snobelen Farms/Bramhill Seeds
AC Morley (awnless)– Long term check in the OCCC trials, mainly grown for straw potential.
Also available; Sampson, Redeemer
Winter Wheat Test Areas– Unsure on your area?
Ontario Cereals Crop Committee Test Area Map below.
“Never, ever, think about something else when you should be thinking about the power of incentives."
- Charlie Munger