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The Cropwalker - Volume 2 Issue 19

Always read and follow label directions.

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Crop Conditions

Weather – Wet. Looks like there may be a period later this week to get some crop work done. Winter wheat  most wheat has N applied.  Weeds are coming on strong in thin stands. If possible, apply a herbicide with your T1-1.5 fungicide application. Fungicide at this stage will increase straw yield. Flag leaf should be showing in Essex/Kent. Corn planting across the province is variable from 0-20%. Provincially 8-10%. Soybean planting barely started. US corn planting is 42-60% depending on the source. Normally US is 80% by May 20

May 20 2014. About 20-25% of corn planted across Ontario. Less than 5% of soybeans planted. Winter wheat flag leaf emerging in Essex county.


Weather Report from Ohio May 12 2019

While this report is from Ohio, we quite often get the same. “Up to May 16, temperatures will be below normal. However, starting May 17-May 31 the second half of May will see above normal temperatures and evapotranspiration so things will dry some. Rainfall for the rest of May will average close to normal in the 1.5-3-inch range”

Thoughts on Late Planting

1)    Now is time to switch corn hybrids from full season both for grain and silage in some areas.  For 3200 CHU areas the switch date is May 31, for 2800—3200 CHU switch date is May 25th, for lower CHU areas switch date is May 15-20.

2)    Consider dropping down 200 CHUs.

3)    Keep the population the same.

4)    Consider ordering an earlier soybean variety to plant on land scheduled for wheat fall 2019

5)    If you can, store starter fertilizer on farm in case you need some when your dealer is full out busy

6)    Work ground shallowly. Can’t go too shallow as long as you are going to depth of planting which in so deeper than 2”. If possible, level cultivator front to back.

7)    Go over your planting plan so everyone knows order of things to happen

8)   See if you can get some extra help for the running around jobs. Any one that you can trust, brother-in-law, city friends. If you have to work all night see if you can get someone to run shot gun and keep everyone focused.

9)    You need starter fertilizer on corn. If you are putting on more than 150 lbs/ac see what you can do to get it down to 125-150 lbs/ac

10) You cannot successfully plant corn into wet ground, but you can with cereals. And soybeans are in between

11)  Co-operate with any neighbour who is willing to trade work. If someone is done working ground or planting, get them to help you even though we all know they won’t do as good a job as you would. They don’t know your land as well as you do.

12) Corn planting depth at 1 ½”. Set depth in heaviest part of field knowing it will be deeper in lighter soils. Plant soybeans ½” into soil moisture but no deeper than 2 ½” (3” in sand).

13) Safety. Make sure everyone has a cell phone or two-way radio. You know things will go wrong, so you need to be in constant contact.

Corn CRM and CHU’s

If you are switching to an earlier hybrid by planting something with 200 CHUs less, the question is what is that in CRM days. Corn relative maturity (CRM) rates hybrids within a company. You can’t compare CRMs of different companies, any more than you could compare CHU ratings between companies. But as a ball park 200 CHUs is 6-8 CRM days.

Handling Manure in a Wet Year

1)    Apply maximum rate allowed by your Nutrient Management Plan. Average dairy manure is about 15 lb./ac useable N per 1,000 gallons. Thus, you might be able to apply 10,000 gallons/ac. Better to apply 10,000 gal/ac on 50 acres than 5,000 gallons /ac on 100 acres.

2)    Hog manure can vary from 15-30 lbs of available N per 1,000 gallons.

3)    IF you don’t need the space plant before you spread manure

4)    Better to apply manure on ground destined for soybeans than compact ground going into corn.

5)    Research has shown that you can drag hose manure on corn up to V3 leaf stage. Research on soybeans is a bit sketchy. Some indicates a possible yield loss if drag hose is run across emerged soybeans with hog manure. The hose itself did not seem to do any damage.

Tank Mix Order – How to avoid making porridge

BASF developed the acronym WAMLEGS for the mixing order of crop protection products. By law, labels state which type they fall into.

Fill tank half full with water

W – Wettables Powders/Dry Flowables (DC,DF,DG,DS,F,DF,Gr,SG,SP)

A – Agitate, Anti-flowing compounds, buffers

M – Microencapsulated (ME)

L – Liquids (SN, SC, Li, Su)

E – Emsulfiable Concentrates (EC)

G – Glyphosate

S - Surfactants

Q - Which soil applied herbicides can I use and go to either corn or soybeans?

A There are a number of products registered in both corn and soybeans, there are a few restrictions around rates and timing. Unlikely to be able to make a fool proof program while leaving some flexibility for cropping decisions, as a result, plan on an in-season application.

1.     Integrity – Can be used in both crops, registered rate in corn is 0.3 to 0.45 L/ac; soybean is 0.15 L/ac. If you are unsure and need to do a burndown/pre-emerge, then use the 0.15 L/ac rate. Expect to have to comeback in-crop in corn much earlier than normal.

2.    Prowl H20 – Is registered on both crops. However, on soybeans it must be applied before drilling or planting, and for corn, it is labelled to be applied after planting.

3.    Dual II Magnum. Focus, Frontier, Zidua – are all registered on both crops.

4.    Broadstrike RC – is registered on corn at 25 gr/ac and soybeans at 35 gr/ac.

5.    Have something already applied and thinking of switching crops? Contact the respective company’s supplier representative prior to planting an alternative crop.

Q- What can I do to speed corn emergence. Will zinc in the starter help?

A Zinc in the starter will not speed emergence. Zinc is important in the early plant growth. There are a number of “biological” seed additives/treatments that are registered to be used. But I have not seen any third-party research showing a yield benefit to them. I believe they will come and we may have one or more now. Suggest you keep looking and trying but don’t expect miracles. Best thing for quick emergence is a nice seedbed and a good planter set properly.

Can I use Tillage to Control Fleabane Now?

Absolutely not. Earlier some tillage could have controlled some small plants but now they are too big to be controlled by any tillage. Even mouldboard ploughing will not likely kill them. You will just transplant them.

Review of What Happens in Corn Germination and Emergence

Germination and growth are temperature driven. When the temperature around the seed is less than 50 F, there is little to no growth activity for either corn or soybean. The optimum temperature for germination is about 70 F, but germination can occur when temperatures are lower. Normally in May, there is a portion of the day when the seed zone temperature is higher than 50 F and this portion increases as each day passes. The number of days that’s normally needed for corn germination and emergence is about 25 when soil temps are 50-60 F and about 7 days with soil temps about 60 F.

Winter Wheat Nitrogen Uptake Curve

Many questions about when to split, how much to split and when it is taken up. The answer depends on the specific situation, however, a starting point to the conversation can be the N uptake charts below. In most situations, it is time to get the remaining N on, cool soils are mineralizing less nitrogen than normal, and what has mineralized, could have moved below the root zone. Unless you are planning on using a dry product, such as AMIDAS, spraying UAN or UAN/ATS on wheat once the flag leaf has emerged is generally not recommended.

Figure 1 - PNW Pub 578 - Total Biomass and N Uptake by Growth Stage
Figure 2 - MT Ext - Growth Stage and N App. Timing Effect on Yield and Protein

Pre-Emerge Corn Herbicides

A brief opinion on which pre-emerge corn herbicide should be used where (based upon opinion and grower experience). Mileage may vary on your weed spectrum and management practices.

Acuron – best fit has been growers looking for full-season annual grass and broadleaf control. Must be applied pre-plant to 6-leaf. Good PRE option for conventional corn, provided you have a plan to control perennials in-crop.

Converge XT – Found best success at the 20 ac. rate when targeting warm-season broadleaves (Lamb’s Quarters, Pigweed, Ragweed). Use the 15 ac. rate if targeting Proso Millet. Weakness can be grasses and perennial weeds, if high or severe infestation. Narrow window for application at PRE to 2-3 leaf. Need to reduce the rate to 30 ac/unit when tank mixing with glyphosate on emerged corn.

Engarde – pre-mix of Elim and Callisto. Add Aatrex for more consistent broadleaf control. Crop safe from PRE to 2 leaf.

Focus/Zidua – Group 15 like Dual or Frontier. Adds residual bluegrass control. Do not apply Focus in-crop. A tank mix partner is suggested (Aatrex or Marksman).

Dicamba/Marksman – Corn must be planted prior to application. Less risk of crop injury if corn has emerged. Provides both knockdown and residual if right rate is applied.

Halex GT – Is a one-pass program for the one to three leaf in-crop on RR corn. It could be used PRE, prior to crop emergence, however, you have any some late season perennial weed escapes. Do not apply in-crop on conventional corn or with 28% UAN.

Integrity – best for growers on worked ground and wanting to apply 28% UAN. Can work on no-till or strip-till corn provided perennials are not too big, otherwise, regrowth can occur if the glyphosate does not translocate. Even at the high rate (0.45 L/ac), you may have to come back into cleanup with glyphosate, because of this, not targeted for conventional corn.

Lumax – is being phased out, it is a pre-mix of Callisto + Primextra. Performs best in the PRE to 3 leaf market on unmerged annual grasses and broadleaves. If emerged, add a tank-mix partner such as glyphosate.

Primextra II Magnum –Can be strip-tilled, worked in, left on-top or used in-crop. While the 1 L/ac rate has been promoted extensively, best performance has been at the 1.2-1.6 L/ac rate, especially when any incorporation occurs. Growers that use this product on its own pre-emerge will need to plan on a clean-up spray in-crop. Performs best when combined with a group 27, like Callisto, or a group 4, such as dicamba, in-crop.

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- Pablo Picasso